Where ethnic, linguistic and/or religious grievance lies at the heart of the conflict, it is certain that a durable peace will require some changes in governance so that it is addressed. Decentralization and autonomy arrangements are important, but they are not a magic bullet and certainly cannot be applied in a onesize- fits-all model. Their appropriateness and consequences will vary enormously according to context. This short paper examines some of the common misunderstandings.