Traditional, faith-based communities are increasingly re-emerging from relative obscurity to assert themselves as powerful actors in both in the precipitation and resolution of conflict as well as its resolution. David Steele analyses the Serbian Orthodox Church in Kosovo and Shi’ite Muslims in south central Iraq and formulates questions for mediators to ask in order to identify and understand some common characteristics shared by religious movements, including the aversion to secularisation, the belief in holding absolute truth and trust the faith that the present suffering and victimisation of a people bears the promise of ultimate redemption if only their mission is fulfilled.